Notes for the day

Behavioral Theories – the mind can be conditioned to respond to a stimuli.

  • Classical Conditioning
  • Operant Conditioning

Cognitive Theories –  concerned with internal mental processes bet.stimuli and responses. making meaningful knowledge out of information. Outcome of processing information include remembering, concept-formation, reasoning and problem solving.

  • Social Learning Theories – people learn through interaction with others
  • Information Processing Theory- The mind is like a computer. Focuses on how information is recorded in long term memory.
  • Contstructivists – concerned with how learners construct their knowledge of the world.
    • Social Constructivists – Emphasize on the collaboration of knowledge. Social interaction, The More Knowledgeable Other (MKO), Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) (Vygotsky)
    • Cognitive Constructivists – emphasize on the child’s construction of knowledge.  Schema, Assimilation, Accommodation and  Equilibrium.(Piaget)

Source:

Lou Juachon Ph.D. Handouts  EDS103 Module Handouts

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Module 8 e journal entry: We were made to memorize dates!

In high school I remember our Araling Panlipunan teacher made us memorize different historical dates of the events in the Philippines which made no impact at all in our deep processing and meaning making.  In fact, I perhaps just had stored it in my short term memory bank that I do not remember any of them at present time. I was not motivated at all for I could not see a practical purpose to learn it. To me, it was not learning but purely memorizing. I remember myself asking, what do these dates have to do with the things I will be doing in the future? I never found any use for it.  The historical events though were interesting topics that we have discussed in class and the teacher had her share of using constructivist principles by facilitating debates using current issues back then.

Given a chance to teach Araling Panlipunan, I think it would be wonderful to see students think critically in class by analyzing the events in the past and  its effects at  present time. I will allow them to discuss among themselves the pros and cons, the causes and the effects of Philippine history and let them creatively present in class what they understood about the topics. I will present problems and encourage them to come up with workable proposals based on their research and understanding of the historical events.

Social Learning

1.  Bandura highlighted the value of self-efficacy in learning.  What experiences in distance learning can you cite as concrete examples to demonstrate how your efficacy beliefs about learning may have changed. (Refer to the four major sources of self-efficacy identified in the  module.)

Mastery Experiences:

As they say experience is the best teacher.  Through DE I have challenged myself to write and be able comply with the requirements as part of self-regulation.  I am not a very good writer but I think since this is the mode of communication in DE, my writing skills were honed furthermore.  In addition to this, the e-journal has encouraged me to do more than just respond but to reflect on my own learning.

Social modeling

Despite the difficulty of schedule due to work, I see my classmates being able to do what is required of us.  I am encouraged to catch up with the work load at DE at the same time remain efficient at work.

Social Persuasion:

Our virtual classmates and teacher Malou have been very engaging and encouraging.  Positive feedbacks from them fuels my desire to do more.

Psychological Responses:

I sometimes feel stressed out and could not compose anything substantial, finding it difficult to self-regulate and manage time.  I am disappointed with the kind of work I come up with sometimes and what is worse is the time frame I have to beat. It helps to think with PMA – positive mental attitude. I tell myself often, it is not a race but a learning journey where one can stop and appreciate everything that comes my way.  Doing this makes me spring back and move on.

 

2.  Discuss and elaborate through anecdotes the section

Factors affecting observational learning and performance.”

Developmental status –

My nephew, Angelo, was introduced to colored animated books as a pre-school.  The books were read to him in the beginning until he learned to read short fables independently.  As he grew older, so as his ability to concentrate developed. At present he is already in grade 5 and he reads a full length books regularly, at least one book every quarter. Aside from reading, he also learned to make his own comic strip.

Model prestige and competence –

Many products are endorsed by known personalities because we tend to admire their achievements and capabilities.  For example,  Michael Jordan for Nike.  People try to emulate him and they patronize whatever he is identified with from shoes to clothing down to his movements on the court. People pay attention to him and  identify themselves to him.

Vicarious consequences –

I have seen a friend get entangled in car accident due to texting while driving. He almost lost his life and endangered other people’s lives too.  He paid a serious amount of money due to the wreckage and hospitalizations of the persons involved in the accident. I don’t text when I drive due to this experience.

Outcome expectations –

Years back I had senior friends who took the board exams right away as soon as they graduated from dentistry and they passed. I originally planned to take the national boards after a semester of review but after seeing what my senior friends have done with positive results, I ended up taking the boards sooner than I expected. Luckily I did make it.

Goal setting  –

My parents value education and are accomplished in what they do. My siblings and I learned to value going to school to earn a professional degree because of this exposure.

Values –

As a young boy I have observed how my family honored traditional practices of giving respect like “pagmamano” especially to relatives in the province. I find it very unique to our Filipino culture since in the west they practice kissing on the cheeks followed by exchange of hellos. I have adapted pagmamano whenever I meet older people I respect in the family.

Self efficacy –

Way back in high school my friends started playing the guitar which I considered to be a difficult instrument to play.  But after my friends started learning, I was encouraged to learn as well, realizing that if they have done it, then I sure can do it too.

 

Module 7 e journal entry: Can teachers be replaced by humanoids in the classroom?

robot-teacher_1599830iComputers have significantly changed the landscape of the world in terms of doing business and communication, delivering health care and even educating people.  Because of its efficiency and reliability, business decisions can now be made in a few days which normally would take months of studies. In business, time is money; opportunity does not present itself twice so decisions have to be made in real time. Spread sheets and data bases in financial institutions have been so effective in decision making. In hospitals, robots are already used in various surgery procedures and have improved the health conditions of many patients.  High performing computers power up diagnostic machines like MRIs, CT scans, 3D sonograms that help doctors detect patients’ condition and aid them in designing a good treatment plan.  In the education industry, computers have become ordinary equipment. PCs, laptops, Tablets and notebooks capable of accessing the internet via 3G or wifi have become ubiquitous that almost everyone has them. The web has become everybody’s virtual library and university.

Movies like Artificial Intelligence by Steven Spielberg and I-Robot starring Will Smith were block buster films that have made millions by portraying robots like human beings. They are called humanoids.  Although, robots have been in the manufacturing industry for a long time producing car parts and other mass produced electronic parts and gadgets, they do not necessarily look like human beings.  I think that robots have evolved into humanoids because man has a dire need to relate and interact.  We are all social beings.

If computer powered robots are so effective and efficient, making them more dependable and predictable in terms of behavior since they can be programmed, can’t they replace teachers in classrooms?  I remember years back when some robots were programmed toteach English language to students in South Korea.  Although I agree that we cannot beat them at information storage and retrieval, they will still be dependent on us in terms of encoding information. As they say, garbage in,  garbage out. Whatever is your input defines your output. Computers cannot initiate encoding for themselves, at least for now as far as I know. But we do not hold the future.

Human beings learning and thought process is so complex that even the best artificial intelligence (AI) engineers and designers have yet to unlock the answers. This could be their ultimate goal and achievement – for robots to intellectually respond like humans. Humanoids do not have the understanding of the schema and concepts the human mind is capable of. It can only do what it has been programmed to do in a single dimension. It cannot create new ideas from its own thoughts and does not understand feelings. It may define it but not understand it. I remember in the movie Bicentennial Man(1999) starring Robin Williams who acted as a humanoid, the robot observed the girl cry and he asked what kind of emotion she was exhibiting. And he said that shedding tears is something he won’t be able to experience.

Cover of

Cover of Bicentennial Man

Unlike humans, robots do not have deep motivations and are not concerned with self-efficacy, self-worth. Therefore they too cannot be models for social learning and development. They are not capable of reflecting and choosing the kind of behavior that is appropriate based on values and feelings that human beings have.  They can only function within the limits of its program.  In class, an effective teacher needs to understand and take into consideration the dynamic mix of his students’ cognitive as well as affective domains, their learning styles, their internal and external motivating factors, their learning abilities and thought processes. I think in the future, humanoids may be very powerful tools to aid in the education process but they can never replace their human counterparts in terms of social learning and development.

Today however, technology has not yet come up with a robot that can replace the human teacher. But who knows? Only time can tell. As Albert Einstein says, “Imagination is more important than knowledge. Knowledge is limited. Imagination encircles the world.”  I am just glad that today I am not taught by a robot to have faith, to continue to hope and to always love.