Complex Learning

  1. 1.      If you believe that we can teach complex learning (e.g., analytical, creative thinking), HOW can it be done?  Be specific; your ideas must be doable.  If not, what are the“insurmountable obstacles”?


I believe we can teach critical thinking by provoking our students to go beyond just knowing facts and by engaging their higher order thinking skills. In addition, Blooms taxonomy has outlined how we or our students can develop critical thinking. According to him, we should teach our students to progress from knowledge acquisition, to comprehension, to application, to analysis, to evaluation and finally to creation of their original thoughts and concepts based on their deep processing experience.

By grouping students and providing them with real life problems to solve in class instead of just giving them the facts of certain topics, we are giving them opportunities to think creatively of possible solutions. They learn how to think for themselves and validate their learning as well.

For example, in biology subject, instead of directly presenting the usual body cells, tissues, to organs, to systems; the teacher may introduce a medical condition say, diabetes, and allow the student to share what it is that they know about the disease. The students will be given time to share everything that they know then the teacher can solicit the lesson and learning from the class in the process.

  1. 2.      Which theoretical approach/es best align/s with complex learning?  Conversely, which theoretical views tend to undermine high order thinking skills?  Elaborate.  What are the implications to curriculum development and classroom teaching?  In other words, what are the implications of specific theoretical perspectives on the way we design curriculum and plan/ implement teaching, or even in the way students learn?

I believe that constructivism approach is best aligned with complex thinking.  Creative thinking, critical thinking and analysis are skills needed when we are constructing schemes, concepts and principles.

On the other hand, I think information processing theory tend to undermine higher order thinking skills because of its nature which focuses more on encoding, retention and retrieval that basically gives emphasis to memorization more than critical and creative thinking.

The curriculum dictates the “what” and the “how” things should be taught in class.  I think that it has to be designed with the learner in mind because at the end of the day they are the recipients and beneficiaries of the learning process.  The theoretical perspectives serve as tools in approaching the uniqueness of the individual learner in class. 

  1. 3.      How do you imagine might learning theory affect the progress and development of a community or a nation?  As an individual with such awareness, what commitment/s, if any, can you make?


I believe that in the past learning had become synonymous with memorization. The western teachers fed our minds with foreign information which were not necessarily beneficial to us as a nation. Now, armed with learning theories, I believe that we can become free thinkers and model critical, analytical and creative thinking to our learners. I commit that I will be a catalyst for change by influencing learners to practice critical thinking in choosing and participating in activities that  contribute to self development and national progress.



  1. Discuss how self-efficacy, self-worth, and anxiety each affects motivation.


Self-efficacy.  It is a person’s belief in his or her ability to succeed in a particular situation. Bandura described these beliefs as determinants of how people think, behave, and feel (1994). Motivation increases when a person has the ability to successfully deliver what is demanded of him by the situation.

For example, believing that you have the talent and skill in what you are doing say, in sports, you are motivated to perform well all the more because you know that you are good at it..


Self – worth. Self-worth (self esteem) is a more affective or emotional reaction to the self. It can mean taking pride in yourself and your behavior, feeling good about yourself and accomplishments, and having a general positive image of yourself. People with high self-worth are motivated to succeed because of their positive perception of themselves.

For example, your positive outlook you have for yourself motivates you to contribute more to society because you know that you can make a difference in the lives of others.


Anxiety.  According to Csikszentmihaly is experienced when skill level is low and challenge level is high. It causes distorted cognitive processes, muscle tension, irritability and fatigue. People who are experiencing anxiety become poorly motivated.

For example, in taking exams which you failed to prepare for causes you to experience what many people know as a mental block.  A condition that impairs your understanding and lowers your performance.

  1. How does one’s belief about the nature of intelligence affect motivational approaches to learning? 


Someone once said you become who you think you are.  We are only limited by our own thinking.  Understanding the nature of intelligence –  its complexities and intricacies and knowing that it can be significantly improved motivate learners like us. It gives us a positive point of view in terms of setting higher goals for developing our intellectual faculties.




What Is Self-Efficacy?


By D. H. Schunk|P. R. Pintrich|J. Meece

Pearson Allyn Bacon Prentice Hall

Updated on Jul 20, 2010


Notes for the day

Behavioral Theories – the mind can be conditioned to respond to a stimuli.

  • Classical Conditioning
  • Operant Conditioning

Cognitive Theories –  concerned with internal mental processes bet.stimuli and responses. making meaningful knowledge out of information. Outcome of processing information include remembering, concept-formation, reasoning and problem solving.

  • Social Learning Theories – people learn through interaction with others
  • Information Processing Theory- The mind is like a computer. Focuses on how information is recorded in long term memory.
  • Contstructivists – concerned with how learners construct their knowledge of the world.
    • Social Constructivists – Emphasize on the collaboration of knowledge. Social interaction, The More Knowledgeable Other (MKO), Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) (Vygotsky)
    • Cognitive Constructivists – emphasize on the child’s construction of knowledge.  Schema, Assimilation, Accommodation and  Equilibrium.(Piaget)


Lou Juachon Ph.D. Handouts  EDS103 Module Handouts

Group Discussion: Learning Theories

1.  Bandura highlighted the value of self-efficacy in learning.  What experiences in distance learning can you cite as concrete examples to demonstrate how your efficacy beliefs about learning may have changed. (Refer to the four major sources of self-efficacy identified in the  module.)

Mastery Experiences:

As they say experience is the best teacher.  Through DE I have challenged myself to write and be able comply with the requirements as part of self-regulation.  I am not a very good writer but I think since this is the mode of communication in DE, my writing skills were honed furthermore.  In addition to this, the e-journal has encouraged me to do more than just respond but to reflect on my own learning.

Social modeling

Despite the difficulty of schedule due to work, I see my classmates being able to do what is required of us.  I am encouraged to catch up with the work load at DE at the same time remain efficient at work.

Social Persuasion:

Our virtual classmates and teacher Malou have been very engaging and encouraging.  Positive feedbacks from them fuels my desire to do more.

Psychological Responses:

I sometimes feel stressed out and could not compose anything substantial, finding it difficult to self-regulate and manage time.  I am disappointed with the kind of work I come up with sometimes and what is worse is the time frame I have to beat. It helps to think with PMA – positive mental attitude. I tell myself often, it is not a race but a learning journey where one can stop and appreciate everything that comes my way.  Doing this makes me spring back and move on.


2.  Discuss and elaborate through anecdotes the section

Factors affecting observational learning and performance.”

Developmental status –

My nephew, Angelo, was introduced to colored animated books as a pre-school.  The books were read to him in the beginning until he learned to read short fables independently.  As he grew older, so as his ability to concentrate developed. At present he is already in grade 5 and he reads a full length books regularly, at least one book every quarter. Aside from reading, he also learned to make his own comic strip.

Model prestige and competence –

Many products are endorsed by known personalities because we tend to admire their achievements and capabilities.  For example,  Michael Jordan for Nike.  People try to emulate him and they patronize whatever he is identified with from shoes to clothing down to his movements on the court. People pay attention to him and  identify themselves to him.

Vicarious consequences –

I have seen a friend get entangled in car accident due to texting while driving. He almost lost his life and endangered other people’s lives too.  He paid a serious amount of money due to the wreckage and hospitalizations of the persons involved in the accident. I don’t text when I drive due to this experience.

Outcome expectations –

Years back I had senior friends who took the board exams right away as soon as they graduated from dentistry and they passed. I originally planned to take the national boards after a semester of review but after seeing what my senior friends have done with positive results, I ended up taking the boards sooner than I expected. Luckily I did make it.

Goal setting  –

My parents value education and are accomplished in what they do. My siblings and I learned to value going to school to earn a professional degree because of this exposure.

Values –

As a young boy I have observed how my family honored traditional practices of giving respect like “pagmamano” especially to relatives in the province. I find it very unique to our Filipino culture since in the west they practice kissing on the cheeks followed by exchange of hellos. I have adapted pagmamano whenever I meet older people I respect in the family.

Self efficacy –

Way back in high school my friends started playing the guitar which I considered to be a difficult instrument to play.  But after my friends started learning, I was encouraged to learn as well, realizing that if they have done it, then I sure can do it too.